This Mountain Development Resource Book for Afghanistan, the product of the cross-pollination of ideas among ICIMOD and Afghan partners in a writeshop, is part of ICIMOD's efforts to contribute to the rebuilding of Afghanistan, one of its regional member countries. Each chapter and subject in the book provides a development option or technology applicable to the mountain conditions of Afghanistan, as well as other mountain areas of the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, and is illustrated by Afghan examples. The book was designed for use by development practitioners who work with communities in Afghanistan who can use any of the options or mix of options, technologies, or interventions proposed in the book, and apply them in the areas and communities where they work. The book is organised in five chapters. Chapter 1, Working with Communities, discusses various participatory principles and approaches to engage communities in development work including community mobilisation, conflict mitigation, social auditing , participatory three-dimensional modelling, and gender mainstreaming. Chapter 2, Creating Livelihoods, proposes ways to build community enterprise and provides two specific options, beekeeping, and renewable energy technologies. Chapter 3, Managing Natural Resources, discusses rangeland resources management, watershed management, soil moisture retention and soil fertility options for degraded lands, and snow and water harvesting and lost-cost irrigation. Chapter 4 discusses two approaches to dealing with and Living with Risk; one is through the use of Local Knowledge, and another is specific to Flash Flood Risk Assessment. The fifth chapter, Making Development Work, provides basic concepts in monitoring and evaluation and is applicable after initiating some projects and activities proposed in Chapters 1-4. The book was produced through a writeshop, one of the knowledge harvesting tools being promoted by ICIMOD as a knowledge centre and knowledge enabling institution on mountain development.