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Technologies, Emission Estimation, and Feasibility of Cleaner Technologies in Brick Industry of Nepal

  • Sudeep Thakuri
  • Anup Basnet
  • Khagendra Rawal
  • Raju Chauhan
  • Rassu Manandhar
  • Pragyajan Yalamber Rai
  • Summary

The brick industry is a significant contributor to economy of Nepal, but it is also a key source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution. This study explores the current state of the brick industry in Nepal, the technologies used for brick production, and the feasibility of cleaner technologies using desk reviews, field surveys, and consultations. A total of 1.30 mT CO2-e (million tons of CO2 equivalent) emission is estimated from 1236 brick kilns in 41 districts of Nepal. The majority of brick kilns use traditional technologies, which are highly inefficient and produce large amounts of emissions. Several cleaner technologies are identified as viable alternatives, including Zigzag Kilns, Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBK), and Hybrid Hoffman Kilns (HHKs). Based on the evaluation of technological, environmental, financial, resource, and legal feasibilities, the zigzag and HHKs are identified as the most promising options for reducing emissions and improving environmental sustainability in the brick industry in Nepal. We conclude that while there are technical and economic barriers to adopting cleaner technologies in the brick industry, there are also opportunities for government support and private sector investment to drive more sustainable brick production in Nepal. A combination of policy incentives, financial support, and technical assistance help to accelerate the adoption of cleaner technologies in the brick industry, leading to significant environmental and economic benefits for the country.

  • Published in:
    Environmental Challenges, 15
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