Afghanistan is a landlocked country with an arid and semi-arid climate. Eleven percent of the arable land lies in temperate ecological zones. Wheat is a major crop and staple food covering 80% of the total cereal planted area in Afghanistan. Climatic conditions such as droughts, increased incidences of pests and crop disease, lack of irrigation, changing farming practices, increased use of pesticides and insecticides, and land preparation, among others, hamper wheat productivity. Despite being a significant producer, Afghanistan still imports wheat from other countries.