Pastoralism from a temporal dimension is as old as the first human civilization; and spatially it is witnessed all across the world’s dry belt region. In Asia, pastoralism is concentrated mostly in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The erstwhile development model driven primarily by market economy and capitalism has ignored the contribution of pastoralists to society and sustainable environments. Pastoralists and their way of life are yet to receive the attention they deserve, since current development paradigms emphasize intensive and sedenterized farming systems to fulfill the increasing demand for food. Further, there are limited studies and indepth integrated research that help us to understand pastoralism in a holistic way. Perhaps it is an opportune time to assess pastoralism in a more systematic manner to gain a deeper perspective and provide due attention and support to the rangelands.