Forest and Soil Carbon Stocks, Pools and Dynamics and Potential Climate Change Mitigation in Nepal
The degradation of forest and soil contribute significantly to carbon emission to the atmosphere leading to the build–up of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and contributing to global warming. Consequences of climate change are not only the rise in global temperatures, but also changes in the precipitation patterns, which could affect agricultural production, food security, human health and long-term ecosystem properties balance. The deforestation and land degradation are major sources of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. International negotiations and dialogues on REDD+ mechanism are held for both national and local level mitigation policies formulation for the reduction of carbon emission from land use, land use change and forestry sector. The reduction of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and avoidance of deforestation and forest/land degradation constitute lasting and long-term solutions for mitigating climate change. There is an urgent need of relevant and efficient methods of measuring forest and soil carbon through application of the latest geospatial technologies, i.e., GIS (geographic information system), Remote Sensing and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). These technologies can support the precise measurement of carbon stocks, as well as, offer cost effective and interoperable data generation methods. The REDD+ mechanism is being promoted worldwide mainly to reduce the diminishing of forest in developing countries. Such an approach must consider use rights, sustainable management of forests, ensuring and safe-guarding the benefit sharing mechanism and good governance, along with the legal framework and local livelihood concerns.