This book, a doctoral dissertation, describes the current bio-physical and socio-economic state of water resources in the Jhikhu Khola catchment of Kabhre-Palanchok District in the middle mountains of Nepal, and compares the results with those in the Yarsha Khola catchment in Dolakha District of Nepal as well as catchments in China, India and Pakistan. The study was a part of the People and Resource Dynamics of Mountain Catchments in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas Project (PARDYP), a regional research-for-development project on natural resources and watershed management. The research focuses on runoff generation and floods, sediment mobilisation and transport, water availability for domestic and agricultural purposes, the impact of future change on water resources and on related processes, and the synthesis and development of a framework for comparing catchments in the region. The findings show that water resources are not actually scarce in the selected catchments, but that a combination of water management issues and marked seasonality has led to the perception of water scarcity. This publication will help those working on integrated catchment development focused on the reduction of water-induced land degradation and the degradation of water resources by illustrating the most important considerations when developing water management decision-support systems.