• Non-ICIMOD publication


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Spatiotemporal valuation of cultural and natural landscapes contributing to Pakistan's cultural ecosystem services

  • Arshad Ali Shedayi
  • Ming Xu
  • Julen Gonalez-Redin
  • Amjad Ali
  • Laila Shahzad
  • Sabit Rahim
  • Summary

Cultural ecosystem services are the non-material benefits that people obtain from ecosystems and these services are subject to tremendous anthropogenic and climatic pressures. This study evaluates the spatiotemporal economic valuation of selected cultural and natural landscapes in Pakistan using net present value method. The results indicate that both cultural landscapes and mountain ecosystems are the most significant contributors to Pakistan's cultural ecosystem services. The net present value of our study area was USD 96/ha, while this value is ranged from USD 0.000242/ha to USD 138,997/ha in the 42 previous studies selected for comparison. Service flow, population, and visitor numbers were the most significant indicators of cultural ecosystem services. The promotion of cultural ecosystem services as an inclusive service and the application of discounted rates are identified as key approaches for ensuring sustainable resource use and enhanced intergenerational benefits by incorporating cultural ecosystem services into the national policy framework.

  • Published in:
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(27)
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