This study finds that stacking is associated with household demographic variables and the time burden of firewood collection; meanwhile, wealthier households, those having more empowered women, and those affected by the 2015 trade blockade in Nepal use more LPG.
a. We examine determinants of fuel stacking and willingness to pay for primary fuels.
b. Stacking is associated with the time cost of firewood collection, wealth, and women's empowerment.
c. Willingness to pay for LPG is lower in households stacking this fuel and firewood.
d. Willingness to pay for LPG and firewood is price inelastic, especially for firewood.
e. Willingness to pay for 1 MJ of useful cooking energy ranges between 0.4 and 1.2 USD.