The Sundarban delta, a biodiversity hotspot and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is home to a large population residing on low-lying remote islands. In its Indian part, the island inhabitants mostly depend on agriculture and collection of fish and crab from deltaic rivers. Overexploitation of these resources has led to dwindling stock, threatening ecological sustainability and traditional livelihood. Climate change predictions indicate high vulnerability for this region from increasing cyclonic activities and salinity ingression into agricultural land. This study addresses a crucial research gap in understanding the local livelihood dynamics in recent years with the help of household-level information from several rounds of surveys conducted over the last decade. The study finds helping labour outmigration from the delta could be an effective strategy for ecosystem conservation and livelihood resilience. It concludes that basic education itself can make the local community more resilient to fight its livelihood challenges.