More than 900 million people live in mountain regions worldwide, where they face multiple natural hazards and increasing disaster risks. Mountain regions are particularly susceptible to earthquakes. In many places, the topography – in combination with heavy rainfalls, and compounded by land degradation – heightens the risk of frequent landslides and flash floods. In other mountain areas, extreme temperatures and droughts affect people’s livelihoods. Mountains are among the most sensitive regions to global warming and intensifying climate variability, and it is likely that climate change will further increase the frequency of natural hazards.