This book is a summary of the proceedings of the International Symposium on "Livestock in Mountain/Highland Production Systems: Research and Development Challenges into the Next Millennium", which took place from 7-10 December 1999, in Pokhara, Nepal. The symposium was jointly sponsored by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), the Systemwide Livestock Programme of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) convened by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), and the Centro Internacional de la Papa (International Potato Center, CIP). The aim was to address the critical issues facing research and development of livestock in mixed farming systems in mountain and highland regions in Africa, the Andes, and the Hindu Kush-Himalayas and to provide a direction for future activities. The meeting highlighted the main current and future trends and constraints to livestock production systems in mountain and highland environments. It successfully established an inter-regional framework for testing and sharing of appropriate options and experiences, and prepared a joint manifesto -- the "Pokhara Call for Action" -- as an expression of the commitment of the participants to work towards common objectives. The book contains contributions from the eighteen presenters of papers on livestock and livestock-related issues, a summary of the results of the electronic conference that preceded the symposium, and a summary of the action plans prepared by the working groups. It is divided into four sections. Part I is an introduction and summary with a brief account of the symposium, Part II contains papers related to the role of livestock in mountain livelihoods, Part III describes the results of three separate regional studies sponsored by FAO -- in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas, East African Highlands, and the Andean region -- on livestock production systems in high pressure mountain/highland areas, and Part IV is concerned with livelihoods and sustainability issues in mountain livestock farming systems.