Diversification of mountain farming to high-value cash crops is going through a major crisis due to pollination- related productivity failures. Citing the example of apple crops in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region,this paper brings to light a lesser-known ecological dimension that is severely affecting apple production and quality. The studies carried out by ICIMOD reveal that declining apple productivity is a result of inadequate crop pollination. Some apple farmers in India and China are aware of this and are trying to overcome this problem using different approaches, including the use of honeybees. But the majority of farmers and institutions in the HKH region have little knowledge about this crucial factor that is limiting the productivity and quality of cash crops like apples and other fruits and vegetables.