Fragile ecosystems are important for their unique features and resources. These include mountains, deserts, semi-arid lands, wetlands and coastal areas. Many of the protected areas and islands can also be considered as fragile, and their concerns are important. Fragility is defined as the 'vulnerability of the ecosystems to external stresses either natural or man-made'. Many ecosystems are at a critical level of degradation. These are prone to irreversible damage due to anthropogenic pressures and stresses beyond their recouping abilities. Human beings are an inseparable part of all ecosystems - the act both as the sustainer and the destroyer. All the ecosystems that render invaluable services are exposed to varios threats today. The workshop participants discuss the question, central to the issue: How can communities living in fragile ecosystems, given the increasing societal pressures, continue to conserve and sustainably use their environment under their cultural conditions?