To address the theme of gender and energy, it is necessary to understand how social inequalities affect energy use, management and access. The ways in which people use, conserve, understand and participate in the benefits of different energy resources depends on their socioeconomic condition, gender and ethnic origin. Women and men have different productive roles, which in turn require different energy inputs. While the burden of household energy supplies and services remains largely the responsibility of women, access to modern energy carriers, such as clean fuels and electricity, affects both sexes. This factsheet highlights why gender makes the difference in energy initiatives, also showing how energy issues affect women.