Around the world, the old paradigm, ‘people or parks’, is giving way to a more humane ‘people and parks’ approach to biodiversity conservation. ICIMOD’s landscape approach to biodiversity conservation reflects this shift, incorporating protecting the rich biological diversity of the Kangchenjunga – a mountain landscape shared by Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal – with alleviating poverty through livelihoods in the areas traversed by the landscape. This publication is a collection of research papers on key conservation and development issues in the southern half of the landscape. It discusses conservation needs, biodiversity values, socioeconomic conditions, and potential enterprise development through income generating opportunities and a policy perspective. Sustainable use of forest resources and alternative livelihood options such as vegetable production, livestock management, and improved agricultural practices are also discussed, as well as conservation measures and the impact of conservation policies on land use and tenure systems and customary laws in protected areas.