People’s perception on human–wildlife conflict in a part of Kailash Sacred Landscape
In the selected horizontal transect of Pithoragarh District, crop damage by wildlife impacts the livelihood of local people. Authors interviewed randomly 317 villagers living in the lower part of KSL, India. Respondents perceived that HWC have resulted in significant shifts in crop pattern, food shortages, and poverty in the study area. 89% per cent of farmers reported that wild animals significantly contributed to the shortages of food for their family. Most of the interviewed villagers suffered major financial losses annually due to crop damage by Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa), Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus), and Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak). The farmers were aware of several locally used management options, which they suggested could be used to reduce the negative impacts of the conflicts. The authors found that the significant effect of HWC on social, economic, and environmental well-being of the community of KSL-India.