The Brahmaputra River basin is extremely important for over 600 million people, who depend on it for irrigation, domestic use, fisheries, tourism, transportation, and hydropower. The basin is dependent mainly on precipitation, while the upper part of the basin depends on meltwater from glacier and snow melt. Hence, understanding the changes taking place in relation to temperature, precipitation, and the flow regime is important for ecosystems, food security, and livelihoods. This working paper provides an introduction to the water challenges facing the Brahmaputra river basin in a climate change context. It offers a series of suggested actions for potentially complementing existing climate change adaptation initiatives and programmes around key climatic impacts, including rises in temperature, changes in rainfall patterns including extreme rainfall events, impacts on forests, and glacial lake outburst floods. The institutional level at which these adaptation measures can be optimally operationalized are indicated.