With around three billion people across the world cooking and heating their homes using open fires or traditional stoves, indoor air pollution remains a significant health threat. The use of solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, dung, and agricultural residues) and coal, to meet energy needs generates a substantial amount of pollutants. In developing and rural areas, women and young children are disproportionately affected by biomass smoke as women are generally tasked with cooking and children often spend time with their mothers. Despite the importance of understanding and addressing indoor air pollution, several gaps in knowledge still exist. Few studies have conducted quantitative research on the emission levels of indoor air pollution and its impacts on women’s cardiovascular health, while simultaneously studying socioeconomic factors and fuel consumption patterns that contribute to this health hazard.