Springs are the main source of water for millions of people in the mid-hills of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), on which both rural and urban communities depend for their domestic and agricultural needs. Springs also provide base flow to river systems, regulate ecosystems, and have cultural value. Despite being a vital resource, they have been poorly studied, resulting in a significant data gap on the dynamics of spring water flow, characteristics of local springs, and hydrogeology governing the occurrence and movement of water in underground aquifers in the mountains. Springs are also part of complex socio-technical and informal governance systems with pronounced gender, equity, and cultural dimensions, which are also not well understood. This has led to ineffective policies and misguided interventions.