Upstream-downstream Linkages for Catchment Level Water Use Master Plans (WUMP) in the Mid-hills of Nepal; ICIMOD Working Paper 2017/23
In mountainous regions, the resource management practices in the upstream areas, especially land and water management, have a direct impact on the downstream communities; at the same time, water availability can directly affect livelihood-related activities in both areas. Upstream-downstream linkages occur at different scales (from micro-watersheds to river basins), across physiographic regions (mountains to plains), across different administrative divisions (wards to countries), and between countries. Studies have found that good watershed management practices in upstream areas can bring opportunities to downstream communities in the form of sustained spring flow, whereas poor watershed management practices have the potential to increase the likelihood of landslide events upstream and contribute to low water-flow in the dry season downstream. Thus, downstream communities have both opportunities and potential threats linked to the management of water in upstream areas.