The management of soil organic carbon (SOC) has now been identified as the most imperative dimension for managing the global climate change as well as soil fertility. In this respect, various agro-ecological approaches such as organic and integrated nutrient management system have been proposed worldwide, though accepted with limited enthusiasm. The understanding of the different soil C pools and processes are of vital importance before the implementation of these agro-ecological management practices, as it determines the success of SOC management. In the present study, we tried to encompass various SOC pools and processes governing the SOC dynamics in the agro-ecosystems. In this paper, dry tropical ecosystems having a unique ecological behaviour (such as strong nutrient conservation mechanisms and potential C sink nature) have been discussed especially due to its potential role in global climate change and mitigation, and linked soil fertility. It is proposed that a multi-factorial experimentation involving quantitative and qualitative change in soil available N, microbial and aggregate attributes, which has been recently found to be of crucial significance, is required for the proper mechanistic understanding of SOC dynamics. It may also help in the identification of some integrative functional indicators, which can be used to achieve a balanced SOC dynamics via suitable agro-management.