Annotation:::: The paper examines issues related to the Nujiang Watershed of Yunnan province, which contains rich hydropower resources. The development of Nujiang hydropower resources is important from an economic standpoint, and can contribute to alleviating poverty. However, Nujiang Watershed is also a habitat for many rare animals and plants, and the local “Three-Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas” is listed as a world natural heritage site. The proposal of developing Nujiang hydropower resources has attracted concern from diffrent social sectors, and the issue of hydropower development’s impact has caused various debates. The paper focuses on human demography, and identifies the importance of developing Nujiang hydropower resources as well as the need to resettle local mountain people. The author uses the method of documental study and adopts demographic, socioeconomic and environmental perspectives in a qualitative analysis to discuss and analyse the benefits and adverse effects of Nujiang hydropower resource development on the local human-land relationship. The analysis focuses on four counties of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province.After discussing the development of natural resources and resettlement of mountain people, the paper concludes that resettlement of local mountain people can promote the development of natural resources, and the development of natural resources can benefit resettled people and help alleviate poverty. Some policies are required to protect the interests of resettled people and promote the protection of local ecological environment.