Population growth and the resultant land use intensi cations have been identi ed as major drivers of environmental changes in densely populated Middle Himalayan Ranges. Study carried out in Upper Kosi Catchment (107.94 km2), in Kumaon Himalaya, India indicated that 3.34% forests have been converted into cultivated and degraded land during last 30 years. ¬ese land use changes have not only reduced the availability of biomass manure to agriculture, but also caused severe depletion of water resources through reduced groundwater recharge. Nearly 33% natural springs have dried and as many as 61% villages have been facing great scarcity of water for drinking, sanitation as well as for crop production. As a result, food production has decreased by 25%, and livelihood opportunities in traditional forestry and agricultural sectors declined considerably. ¬ese situations are increasing the vulnerability of large rural population, particularly poor, landless and socially marginalized communities to food, livelihood and health insecurity.