The Kangchenjunga landscape, shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the seven transboundary landscapes identified by ICIMOD for development of regional cooperation for effective conservation and management of natural resources. This publication draws recommendations for transboundary and participatory biodiversity conservation from ICIMOD's pioneering Kangchenjunga Conservation Landscape Initiative. The Kangchenjunga landscape includes 15 protected areas (PAs). The conservation and management practices in these PAs differ, as do the conservation-related policies of the three countries. The publication analyses past and present conservation policies and practices in the landscape and draws recommendations for enhancing participatory biodiversity conservation and management at the landscape level.