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GIS in Flood Hazard Mapping: A case study of Koshi River Basin, India

  • Bapalu, G. V.
  • Sinha, R.
  • Summary
Flood Hazard Mapping is a vital component for appropriate land use planning in flood-prone areas. It creates easily-read, rapidly-accessible charts and maps which facilitates the administrators and planners to identify areas of risk and prioritize their mitigation/ response efforts. This article presents an efficient methodology to accurately delineate the flood-hazard areas in the Kosi River Basin, North Bihar, India in a GIS environment. We have used one of the multi-criteria decision-making techniques, Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) which provides a systematic approach for assessing and integrating the impact of various factors, involving several levels of dependent and independent, qualitative and quantitative information. We present a novel methodology for computing a composite index of flood hazard derived from topographical, land cover, geomorphic and population related data. All data are finally integrated in a GIS environment to prepare a final Flood Hazard map. This flood hazard index computed from AHP method not only considers susceptibility of each area to be inundated but also takes into account the factors that are inherently related to flood emergency management.
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