This paper examines the issues of subsistence and cash crops in the Uttarakhand Himalaya. It discusses changing agriculture and livelihood security. Here, subsistence cereal farming is the main occupation of people. This practice has recently been transformed, as subsistence cereals have been replaced by cash crops largely in the valley regions and mid-altitudes. In the highlands, traditionally cultivated cereals still dominate in the cropping pattern and they are quite suitable for conserving agro-biodiversity. However, production and productivity of these crops is considerably less than subsistence cereals and normally do not meet the food requirements of the increasing population. Cash crops, on the other hand, have the potential to help food security. There is a general consensus that the issue of subsistence and cash crops needs to be reconciled in view of changing agriculture and livelihood security. The study reveals that cultivation of subsistence cereals and cash crops together maintains agro-biodiversity and food security respectively. Data were mainly gathered from the primary and secondary sources.