For several decades, south east Asian countries have experienced project interventions that seek to support local livelihoods as a means to reduce deforestation. The Philippines are no exception. Since the fall of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, and even before then, the state, NGOs and private sector companies have designed programmes and projects seeking to curb swidden cultivation.This book is useful for students attempting to differentiate and redress the relative impacts of livelihood activities on upland forests in the Philippines. The success of comunity-based conservation is contingent on long-term consultation, building local rapport and trust. Once local users find direct value in such interventions, they themselves carry it forward.