This article reviews critical linkages between land-use transition and human health in the Himalayan region by applying ecosystem approaches to human health (or EcoHealth). Land-use transition in the Himalayan and similar regions includes sedentarization, agricultural intensification, habitat modification, migration, change of livelihoods and lifestyles, biodiversity loss, and increasing flash floods. These transitions, which can have impacts on human health, are driven by state policies, a market economy, and climate change. Human health is dependent on access to ecosystem services for food, nutrition, medicine, fiber and shelter, fresh water, and clear air. Ecosystem management has been a key means of controlling disease vectors and creating suitable habitats for human well-being. The paper identifies the web of environmental factors that influence human health. Institutional and policy issues for land-use and health transitions are also discussed.