Human wellbeing relies on our ability to exploit our diverse and often fragile natural environment sustainably and into the far distant future. If there is no such thing as environmentally neutral economic growth, there is certainly an increasing number of options for sustainable human and social development. Such new approaches are essential to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have been a particular focus of development interest in recent years. The hope is that forest-dependent people can gain new income-generating opportunities with minimal environmental costs. Fruit, basketry, honey and medicinal plants are just a few examples of economically and socially valuable products that can be produced from a sustainably managed natural resource base.