This issue paper is written for a broad audience not acquainted with the topic before. It seeks in simple formulations to explain the importance of Farmers’ Rights for the maintenance of agrobiodiversity and for food security in developing countries. It shows how farmers since the dawn of agriculture have contributed to the inconceivable wealth of agrobiodiversity we have today and what problems farmers of today are faced with when they seek to continue this work. Furthermore, the issue paper presents the international commitments pertaining to Farmers’ Rights and the challenges ahead with regard to their implementation. It focuses on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and its provisions on Farmers’ Rights. A brief history of the negotiations is provided as a background. Results from the Farmers’ Rights project are presented in order to highlight the state of farmers’ rights and promising measures for their further realisation. Several practical examples are given. Finally, the issue paper emphasises that the work for Farmers’ Rights is a central factor in the fight against poverty and recommendations are presented as to what development co-operation institutions can do to further promote their realisation. This paper is also held in German and in French.