Management of Natural Resources in mountain areas inhabited by traditional societies has been experimenting technological and market pressures which in many cases have affected sustainable livelihoods. Impacts of new agricultural technologies and crops, indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, new forms of labor organization, increased pressure from city markets, among others are changing the ways in which mountain people have dealt for centuries with their fragile environments. Few innovations have proven beneficial, while others, especially those coming from quite diverse environments, and have had negative effects on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. This is particularly true for both Andean and Himalayan rural societies. This pattern of change is certainly not limited to the technological area. Traditional culture is also undergoing change as part of a globalization process. Some of these effects are working for the better, but not always.