Resources like agriculture, forest, pastureland and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have been managed by indigenous and local communities since time immemorial. People have been growing various crops depending on the location, climate and culture. Similarly, they decide the breed and number of livestock to be raised based on their access to pastureland, purpose, religious belief and location. Pasturelands are managed in two ways in KSL Nepal, either as open access or controlled access. Social institutions/communities decide the timing, duration, and area of grazing communally. Management structure of highland pasture is better regulated than that of lowland pasture. Forests in KSL Nepal are managed as government-managed forest, religious forest, community forest and leasehold forest. Local people develop rules and regulations to conserve the forest as a community forest and local authorities decide the time for collecting firewood and punish people involved in violating the rules. In some areas of KSL Nepal, forests are conserved as sacred forest where grazing and collection of timber, fodder, NTFPs, etc. are restricted. NTFPs have become major economic products in the region. The production of NTFPs is gradually decreasing due to unsustainable harvesting practices
An MMR guideline is needed to support local communities and REDD+ practitioners up to the district level in implementing REDD+ interventions effectively by enhancing their capacities to monitor, measure, and report information to the relevant authorities. Such information includes the changes in natural resources over time, implementation status of REDD+ activities, as well as benefit sharing and its social and environmental impacts. The guideline provides details on activities included in the MMR process.
More about REDD+: www.icimod.org/reddplu
More about REDD+: www.icimod.org/reddplus
The LTESM framework is a long-term transdisciplinary monitoring framework designed for implementation in ICIMOD’s Transboundary Landscapes Regional Programme together with the Centre’s partners in the region. It focuses on improving understanding of spatial and temporal changes to the biodiversity of the HKH, the drivers of these changes, and the consequences of these changes on human wellbeing in the region. By encouraging research institutions, organizations, and individual experts across disciplines to work together, it will support a more holistic understanding of the dynamic mountain ecosystems of the HKH and provide support for evidence-based decision making in the region. The approach also encourages experts to work on long-term collaborative programmes in line with rapidly growing international research networks such as Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA), International Long Term Environmental Research (ILTER), and Global Earth Observation Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO-BON)