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Year: 2008
This issue of id21 insights focuses on nutrition of women and children:
  • Improving the nutrition status of children and women: The high world food prices that we are currently experiencing provide a chilling reminder of the vulnerability of large parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to hunger and undernutrition
  • Why is undernutrition not a higher priority for donors? The prevention of chronic undernutrition is vital for reducing mortality and morbidity, for economic productivity, and for the respect and protection of human rights. Yet nutrition interventions tend to be low priorities for donors and developing country governments.
  • Strong public-private sector partnerships can help to reduce undernutrition: Global progress towards reducing undernutrition has been made through enlightened public policies, targeted development assistance, private sector actions and commitments from civil society. Yet every year, the deaths of more than 3.5 million children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition.
  • The success of salt iodisation: A shortage of iodine in a diet can cause cretinism, mental retardation and premature birth. These iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) can be eliminated by adding iodine to cooking salt.
  • The price of hunger: The first Millennium Development Goal – to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – reflects the fact that undernutrition is both a symptom and a cause of poverty. The first measure of success is well known: to halve the number of people earning less than US$1 a day. The other – to halve the number of people suffering from inadequate food consumption – is equally important but less well known.
  • The persistence of child malnutrition in Africa: Malnutrition affects about 30 percent of children in Africa, caused by low birth weight and post-natal growth faltering. Child malnutrition is a persistent problem. The long term trend shows only slow improvement, and malnutrition rates worsen during droughts, economic crises, conflicts and displacement, and HIV.
  • Nutrition for mothers and children: Article 25.2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. Yet maternal and child undernutrition are still highly prevalent in most developing countries.
  • Why have donors committed so few direct investments to eliminate child undernutrition? The mandate of most international donors is to reduce poverty, suffering and inequity. Addressing child undernutrition falls within this. However, current donor investment to directly address undernutrition is estimated to be well under half of the resources required.
  • What can be done to accelerate progress against undernutrition?  Many organisations work to eliminate undernutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. These organisations – international organisations, donors, academia, civil society and private sector – are loosely linked as an international nutrition system. However, this system is fragmented and dysfunctional.

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Year: 2007
In this issue of id21 insights, the focus is on health of mothers and babies:
  • Improving the health of mothers and babies - Breaking through health system constraints: Improving maternal health remains the most elusive of the Millennium Development Goals
  • Achieving universal coverage of maternal health care: Maternal health can only be improved if mothers receive care from pregnancy through to childbirth and beyond. For this to happen, health systems need to be strengthened with maternal, newborn and child health care at the core. For some countries this can be done relatively quickly, for others it will take far longer.
  • 'Too much care' threatens maternal health: Whilst the major focus of international advocacy and policy for maternal health is on enabling women to have access to skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth, some women face severe morbidity, even death, from an excess of maternity care.
  • The impact of maternal health on poverty: The links between poverty and poor maternal health are well established. Poorer countries experience the highest rates of maternal mortality, whilst maternal death and life-threatening and debilitating illness are higher among women from poorer households. However, there is now growing evidence that poor maternal health can also exacerbate poverty.
  • Shortages and shortcomings - The maternal health workforce crisis: Providing maternal care requires a viable and effective health workforce. In many countries, and certainly in all countries where maternal mortality is high, the size, skills and infrastructure of the workforce is inadequate.
  • Generating political priority to reduce maternal mortality: Why do some serious health issues receive significant attention from political leaders and others get very little? To achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of reducing maternal mortality, governments must prioritise this issue.
  • A forgotten priority - Maternal health service infrastructure: Weak health service infrastructure contributes to poor maternal health. Apart from inadequate skilled human resources, substandard infrastructure includes poor access to functioning equipment and a lack of essential drugs and supplies.

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Year: 2007
This issue of id21 insights focuses on the quality of teachers:
  • More and better teachers needed - Achieving quality education for all: Eighteen million primary school teachers are needed over the next decade to meet Universal Primary Education (UPE) goals, says a recent report from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics
  • Effective professional development: Continuing — or in-service — professional development (CPD) for teachers is widely considered a critical condition for improved instructional quality and student learning.
  • Missing in action - Addressing teacher absenteeism: Getting teachers to come to work is a major barrier to improving education outcomes in some developing countries, especially in South Asia. Governments often spend 70 to 90 percent of their recurrent education budgets on teacher salaries, without the most basic of returns.
  • Changes in the primary teaching profession in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa: For many countries in sub-Saharan Africa achieving universal access to quality primary education has meant recruiting many more teachers at the same time as improving the quality of teaching.
  • Gender equality and HIV and AIDS in Uganda: HIV and AIDS widen existing inequalities of access to education for boys and girls. Research in Luweero district in central Uganda shows the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on primary school teachers and students in rural areas. Particular efforts are required to ensure that teachers can fulfil their potential to promote gender equality in schools.
  • Fighting for their lives - Political violence against teachers in Colombia: Awareness of the scale of human rights violations against Colombian trade unionists is growing. Of the 1,174 reported murders of trade unionists worldwide between 1999 and 2005, 860 were Colombian and half of these were teachers, according to the Colombian National Trade Union School.
  • Finding the pathway - Women teachers' aspirations in northern Pakistan: Women teachers face enormous cultural challenges in northern Pakistan. Research from the Aga Khan University explores women's experiences of trying to build teaching careers within this patriarchal society and looks at how they balance their multiple commitments.
Available also in French.

 

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Year: 2007
The Bulletin focuses on biodiversity:
  • Monitoring Biodiversity on the Saharan Slopes of the High Atlas, Morocco by Manfred Finckh, Anna Augustin and Norbert Jürgens
  • Closures: A System of Biodiversity Conservation through Community Participation in the Highlands of Eritrea by Vishwambhar Prasad Sati
  • Biodiversity Assessment in Lobo-San Juan Mountains by Anacleto M
  • Biodiversity Management: Towards Re-establishment of a Protected Areas System in Afghanistan by Stephan Fuller
  • A Challenge for Environmental Continuity in Italian Mountains by Bernardino Romano, Serna Ciabò and Mauro Fabrizio
  • Maintaining Bio-cultural Diversity in the Andes by Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel and Stephan Rist
  • Land Use Change and Biodiversity Conservation in the Venezuelan Páramo: Integrating Farmers’ Perceptions by Luis D. Llambí, Julia K. Smith and Maximina Monasterio
  • Lessons from Kipahulu Valley, Maui by John Cusick
  • Three Decades of Managing Mountain Development in the Himalayan Region – Interview with Dr. James Gabriel Campbell by Ujol Sherchan
  • Book review: Floods in Bangladesh: History, Dynamics and Rethinking the Role of the Himalayas
  • Chua-Chua Botanical Gardens by Farmer Tantoh
  • Sustainable Harvest of Medicinal Plants - Charting the Beginnings of this Initiative from the Astore Conservancy by Athar Ali Khan
  • Empowering Women through Alternative Media for Biodiversity Conservation by Rashmi Gangwar
  • Preserving Mountain Biodiversity in the Western Ghats of the Madurai District, Tamil Nadu by S. P. Anandan
  • Cross-border Balkans Peace Park Project by Antonia Young and Abbey Radis
  • Democratising Forestry in Mexico’s Sierra Norte by Ross E. Mitchell
  • Mapping the La Paz-El Alto Foodshed by Stephen Taranto and Martina Brimmer
  • Andean Páramo Project: Conserving Biological Diversity by Bert De Bievre
  • Biodiversity and the Mountain Partnership by Jane Ross
  • The Carpathian Mountains - the Living Heart of Europe by Pam McCarthy
  • Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Himalaya Celebrates International Mountain Day by Rashmi Gangwar

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Year: 2006
In this id21 insight, the focus is on how transport is improtant for development:
  • Transport, the missing link? A catalyst for achieving the MDGs: What do poor rural farmers do when the rainy season cuts off their access to markets? What do women in labour do when the nearest health clinic is 30 kilometres away and transport is virtually non-existent? How can girls attend school if the journey isn't safe? How do women provide for their families when the transport burden of domestic chores takes up potential income generating time?
  • Creating jobs: In rural areas where non-farm employment opportunities are rare, road maintenance can provide much needed work
  • Getting to school: Achieving universal primary education: Physical mobility and transport barriers that prevent rural children from attending primary school can be substantial but are often complex and hidden. The situation is particularly severe in sub-Saharan Africa where, with few exceptions, more than half the children in any age group fail to attend school regularly.
  • Balancing the load - Gender and mobility: Women, particularly in poor rural areas, often spend more time and effort on transport, have less access to public services and less control over resources. Women also have fewer opportunities than men to use different types of transport such as wheelbarrows, animal traction or motorcycles.
  • Transport for pregnant women in Ethiopia: Africa has the highest maternal mortality ratio, with 830 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to the World Health Organization.
  • Halting the march of HIV/AIDS in Africa: Across eastern and southern Africa, the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals, households, communities and society as a whole, is devastating. No sector has been left untouched, including health, education, agriculture, transport, small and big business, trade and civil society. What can the rural transport sector do to help lesson the impact of the disease?
  • A global network for rural transport: Conventional approaches to MDG 8 - a global partnership for development - tend to focus on trade, aid and private sector issues. The International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) is developing another type of partnership, a global network of individuals and organisations to improve access and mobility for poor people in rural areas.
  • Conflicting agendas in Colombia: In Colombia's tropical jungle, indigenous and African descendant communities live isolated from the rest of the country. Large-scale transport development, responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and widespread deforestation, has a poor environmental record in one of only two humid tropical jungles left in the world.
Available also in French and in Spanish

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Year: 2005
This issue of id21 insights focuses on children and poverty:
  • Make childhood poverty history: About 600 million children worldwide are growing up in absolute poverty
  • Economic policy must recognise children: Macroeconomic policies have powerful effects on children. They shape public spending on basic services such as education and health and influence how households respond to changing economic conditions, often in ways that are not good for children. Yet policy making on the whole does not recognise child well-being as an objective or an outcome. Pro-child interventions relating to economic growth, trade and macroeconomic policy are critical to overcoming poverty.
  • Educating women = healthier children? What is the best way to improve the health of a nation's children? Community healthcare facilities, water supplies and sewerage systems are traditional targets for public investment. Peru's experience suggests that improving women's education is just as important.
  • Children's issues ignored in Ethiopia's PRSP process: Donors, governments and other groups acknowledge that addressing childhood poverty and labour is an important part of broader poverty reduction efforts. Yet, policies with a more comprehensive approach to tackling the multi-dimensionality of child poverty are rarely included in national poverty strategies.
  • Cash transfers can reduce childhood poverty: Forty percent of children in developing countries struggle to survive on less than one US dollar a day, according to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Childhood poverty often leads to long term vulnerability. It is associated with lower educational attainment and schooling which affects future earning potential and well-being. Cash transfers can protect people's well-being as well enable them to invest in their future.
  • Monitoring budgets for child rights: The Bill of Rights in South Africa's constitution gives special consideration to child rights such as basic nutrition and education, health care and social services. Is it possible to ensure that these rights are realised?
  • Dynamics of child poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic: The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the smallest and least developed of the newly created independent states of the former Soviet Union. It ranks 110 out of the 177 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI). In the late 1990s, 88 percent of the population were living on less than US$ 4 per day. Children make up nearly two-fifths of its population but child poverty has received little attention.
  • Does child labour always undermine education? Children are often forced to work due to chronic poverty. Globally, work is the main occupation of almost 20 percent of all children aged under 15. This is considered a major obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education by 2015.
  • ‘High achievers’ prioritise social policy: Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Kerala (India) have succeeded in improving child welfare to a much higher level than might be expected given their national wealth. They are 'high-achievers' in social policy: in 50 years they have made advances in health and education that took 200 years in the industrialised world.

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Year: 2002
Since 1994, Chhetri and her sisters have run a trekking business in Pokhara
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