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Year: 2007
Income from illegal opium poppy cultivation helps sustain the livelihoods of millions of rural Afghans, but also provides significant revenues to criminals and armed groups fighting the government
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Year: 2005
In this issue of id21, the focus is on people living in protected areas:
  • People and protected areas: New agendas for conservation: For many threatened plants and animals, protected areas are a vital refuge in the face of declining natural habitats
  • Making waves: Protecting marine and coastal areas involves many similar issues to terrestrial protected areas, including balancing conservation and development needs and managing tradeoffs between multiple users. However, they also present unique challenges: they often cross international boundaries and the high mobility or migration of many marine species makes protection beyond boundaries difficult.
  • Is forced displacement acceptable in conservation projects? Over ten million people have been displaced from protected areas by conservation projects. Forced displacement in developing countries is a major obstacle to reducing poverty. It should no longer be considered a mainstream strategy for conservation and only applied in extreme cases following international standards.
  • Learning to learn: Societies place a high value on addressing two of the world's most pressing problems - alleviating poverty and protecting the world's biological diversity. A lot of money has been spent on these two objectives, international treaties have been signed and countless organisations have devoted time to implementing funds in projects.
  • Protecting nature, culture and people: Indigenous peoples' traditional ownership and use of land and resources has often been eroded by protected areas. Their consent has rarely been sought for establishing protected areas on their lands, nor have they received adequate compensation. But are conservation organisations and government protected area agencies beginning to recognise the important role these peoples can play?
  • Agriculture vs protected areas: Agriculturalists strive to increase crop production to provide poor communities with incomes and a secure food supply whilst environmentalists want to expand protected areas and reduce the intensity of farming.
  • Tourism in Nepal: Tourism in the Greater Himalaya supports the local economy with foreign exchange and by creating opportunities for local employment. Mass and unregulated tourism, however, can cause environmental damage, particularly in ecologically fragile areas. Is ecotourism - responsible travel that aims to conserve the environment and improve local people's welfare - an effective compromise?
  • Governance of protected areas: The 2003 World Parks Congress and 2004 Programme of Work on Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity brought unprecedented attention to the concept of governance of protected areas, with crucial implications for conservation worldwide.

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