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Year: 2009
The Third International Workshop on Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change was held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from 18-24 February 2009
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Year: 2009
Due to severe winter drought, 700,000 people in the Mid- and Far-Western Hills and Mountains are in need of immediate food assistance in addition to nearly one million people who are currently supported by WFP
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Year: 2007
This issue of id21 insights focuses on retaining legitmacy in fragile states:
  • Retaining legitimacy in fragile states: Globalisation, liberalisation, and the withdrawal of external support from Cold War alliances have placed enormous strains on some developing countries — best described as 'fragile states'
  • Risking civil war by promoting democracy: Promoting democracy abroad may seem like a good way to promote peace. Mature, stable democracies have not fought wars against each other, and they rarely experience civil wars. But the path to a democratic peace is not always smooth.
  • Bridging security and development - People-centred approaches needed: Strategies for securing peace that have worked in Afghanistan are unlikely to work in Iraq or Somalia. Yet, interventions by international organisations and countries in crisis areas continue to follow the same formula: first condemnation, then sanctions, then military action.
  • Good intentions do not prevent conflict: When we speak of the international community we think of states, the United Nations, development agencies, or non-government organisations. Yet other groups and individuals are often as relevant to development: multinational and local companies and private security firms.
  • Making justice sector reform work: The legal system and the judiciary have very important roles to play in maintaining or restoring legitimacy in fragile states. Injustice, deeply embedded in both the legal system and a partial or ineffective judicial system, tends to weaken state legitimacy and sometimes contributes to the eruption of armed conflict.
  • Rebuilding the revenue base for sustainable peace: The challenges of tax collection are formidable in low-income and post-war economies. War economies give rise to a wide range of illegal and informal economic activities beyond the control of the state. This makes tax collection in post-war states particularly difficult.
  • Beyond anarchy in Somaliland and Afghanistan? Since the attacks on the USA on September 11th 2001, the weakening and re-building of states has ranked high on the political and research agenda.
  • Strong but fragile - Horizontal inequalities in Indonesia: Today, most of the international community sees Indonesia as a 'fragile' state, with a recent history of violent conflict and a poor record of access to government services.

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Year: 2007
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a leading agency in the development of the value chain approach and in making it more applicable to the small-farmer agriculture context
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Year: 2006
The development community increasingly recognises the many links between human health and the practice and products of agriculture
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Year: 2005
This issue of id21 insights focuses on education during times of emergencies:
  • Educating young people in emergencies - Time to end the neglect: Armed conflict and natural disasters tear communities apart
  • Applying minimum standards in Indonesia: For many humanitarian agencies, the tsunami in December 2004 tested their ability to assist in educating children on a massive scale. It also raised important challenges in applying the new Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction (MSEE) recently developed by the Inter-Agency Network on Education in Emergencies.
  • New survey reveals major gaps in education: Most children and young people growing up in war zones miss out on education. Precise data, however, are lacking.
  • Life skills, peace education and AIDS prevention: Adolescents in post-conflict situations face many risks including HIV/AIDS and recruitment by fighting forces. Life skills training can add enormously to general education and provide support for emotional and social skills, particularly for HIV prevention and peace-building.
  • Young people speak out: Between 2000 and 2002 over150 adolescents led studies on the problems facing young people in Kosovo, northern Uganda and Sierra Leone, with the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children and other organisations. Despite the different stages of conflict and the diverse cultural, political and social backgrounds of the 3,000 adolescents and young adults interviewed, most said that education is critical to achieving physical protection, psychosocial recovery, peace and development.
  • Young people take the initiative: Young people in Africa face obstacles - poverty, war, discrimination - to a better life and to fulfilling their dreams. In frustration some resort to joining militias or becoming petty criminals or prostitutes in search of friendship, protection and food. The great majority do not want this, however; they want to get better educated and earn a living.
  • Make learning relevant, say young people: As thousands of Rwandans were killed or fled to neighbouring countries ten years ago, the international community provided primary school education in exile camps and local communities. Surveys by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) found that young people wanted to learn but felt that education is not available and that subjects taught are not relevant.
  • Civil war in Uganda - Education as a means of protection: Over 18 years of civil war in northern Uganda, fought mainly between the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Ugandan military, has prevented young people from getting a good education. Over 90 percent of people live in camps for internally displaced persons and most schools in Kitgum and Pader districts are closed despite efforts to achieve Universal Primary Education
  • Post-primary education - Time to deliver: Primary education is increasingly seen as a priority on the same level as ‘life saving’ activities such as ensuring good health, adequate food supply and water and sanitation facilities. Most refugee camps have primary schools and many adolescents attend these classes. After primary, however, there is a mixed pattern of refugee education.
  • Young people reshape the future: Conflict has a devastating impact on education - it disrupts schooling and destroys educational infrastructure. Yet education systems are usually expected to contribute significantly to rebuilding shattered societies. They have to do this in a society suffering from the after effects of conflict and the psychological impact felt by pupils, teachers and communities. In post conflict situations, political authority and civil administration are often weak, compromised, or inexperienced; civil society is in disorder and financial resources limited.
  • Youth peace-building responds to inter-communal conflict: Peace-building programmes for young people are being pioneered to transform social relationships in countries and regions suffering long-standing conflict such as Northern Ireland, Cyprus, the Middle East, the Balkans, India and Pakistan: young people go to a neutral country where they are free from the pressures of conflict and violence.

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This newletter contains four short articles discussing the potential for financing carbon sequestration services
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