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Year: 2008
This issue of id21 insights focuses on financing primary healthcare services:
  • Financing primary health care: Today, millions of people in low- and middle-income countries do not have access to basic, good quality health services
  • Skilled delivery care in Indonesia: Providing adequate access to maternal health care is a test of the entire health system. Care for most women before, during and after delivery can be provided within a well equipped primary care setting. Where complications arise there is the need for speedy referral to higher level facilities. Primary care is thus a main care provider as well as a crucial link to more specialist forms of care.
  • The story of primary health care: The idea of primary health care (PHC) emerged in the 1960s, in recognition of the shortcomings of the health systems inherited by developing countries after independence. Such urban, centralised and curative-oriented health systems were poorly matched to the needs of their people.
  • Contracting out health services: Contracting out public services is a way for governments to complement their own delivery of services. It is particularly effective for high risk or hard-to-reach populations that can be more effectively served by private groups. It can also contribute to more efficient delivery of primary health care (PHC).
  • Better access to effective antimalarials: Malaria is one of the main reasons why people use health services in sub-Saharan Africa, placing a considerable burden on primary health care.
  • Efficiency and equity through a sector-wide approach in Uganda: Financing Uganda's health care services used to be based on a minimum package which cost more than the financial resources available. Donor aid contributed between 40 to 50 percent of these costs. Financial allocations were also biased towards national level hospitals and wages.
  • Tackling Malawi's human resources crisis: The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 will only be possible if we can successfully strengthen the capacity of health systems in middle and low-income countries.

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Year: 2007
This issue of id21 insights focuses on the quality of teachers:
  • More and better teachers needed - Achieving quality education for all: Eighteen million primary school teachers are needed over the next decade to meet Universal Primary Education (UPE) goals, says a recent report from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics
  • Effective professional development: Continuing — or in-service — professional development (CPD) for teachers is widely considered a critical condition for improved instructional quality and student learning.
  • Missing in action - Addressing teacher absenteeism: Getting teachers to come to work is a major barrier to improving education outcomes in some developing countries, especially in South Asia. Governments often spend 70 to 90 percent of their recurrent education budgets on teacher salaries, without the most basic of returns.
  • Changes in the primary teaching profession in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa: For many countries in sub-Saharan Africa achieving universal access to quality primary education has meant recruiting many more teachers at the same time as improving the quality of teaching.
  • Gender equality and HIV and AIDS in Uganda: HIV and AIDS widen existing inequalities of access to education for boys and girls. Research in Luweero district in central Uganda shows the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on primary school teachers and students in rural areas. Particular efforts are required to ensure that teachers can fulfil their potential to promote gender equality in schools.
  • Fighting for their lives - Political violence against teachers in Colombia: Awareness of the scale of human rights violations against Colombian trade unionists is growing. Of the 1,174 reported murders of trade unionists worldwide between 1999 and 2005, 860 were Colombian and half of these were teachers, according to the Colombian National Trade Union School.
  • Finding the pathway - Women teachers' aspirations in northern Pakistan: Women teachers face enormous cultural challenges in northern Pakistan. Research from the Aga Khan University explores women's experiences of trying to build teaching careers within this patriarchal society and looks at how they balance their multiple commitments.
Available also in French.

 

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Year: 2005
This issue of id21 insights focuses on education during times of emergencies:
  • Educating young people in emergencies - Time to end the neglect: Armed conflict and natural disasters tear communities apart
  • Applying minimum standards in Indonesia: For many humanitarian agencies, the tsunami in December 2004 tested their ability to assist in educating children on a massive scale. It also raised important challenges in applying the new Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction (MSEE) recently developed by the Inter-Agency Network on Education in Emergencies.
  • New survey reveals major gaps in education: Most children and young people growing up in war zones miss out on education. Precise data, however, are lacking.
  • Life skills, peace education and AIDS prevention: Adolescents in post-conflict situations face many risks including HIV/AIDS and recruitment by fighting forces. Life skills training can add enormously to general education and provide support for emotional and social skills, particularly for HIV prevention and peace-building.
  • Young people speak out: Between 2000 and 2002 over150 adolescents led studies on the problems facing young people in Kosovo, northern Uganda and Sierra Leone, with the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children and other organisations. Despite the different stages of conflict and the diverse cultural, political and social backgrounds of the 3,000 adolescents and young adults interviewed, most said that education is critical to achieving physical protection, psychosocial recovery, peace and development.
  • Young people take the initiative: Young people in Africa face obstacles - poverty, war, discrimination - to a better life and to fulfilling their dreams. In frustration some resort to joining militias or becoming petty criminals or prostitutes in search of friendship, protection and food. The great majority do not want this, however; they want to get better educated and earn a living.
  • Make learning relevant, say young people: As thousands of Rwandans were killed or fled to neighbouring countries ten years ago, the international community provided primary school education in exile camps and local communities. Surveys by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) found that young people wanted to learn but felt that education is not available and that subjects taught are not relevant.
  • Civil war in Uganda - Education as a means of protection: Over 18 years of civil war in northern Uganda, fought mainly between the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Ugandan military, has prevented young people from getting a good education. Over 90 percent of people live in camps for internally displaced persons and most schools in Kitgum and Pader districts are closed despite efforts to achieve Universal Primary Education
  • Post-primary education - Time to deliver: Primary education is increasingly seen as a priority on the same level as ‘life saving’ activities such as ensuring good health, adequate food supply and water and sanitation facilities. Most refugee camps have primary schools and many adolescents attend these classes. After primary, however, there is a mixed pattern of refugee education.
  • Young people reshape the future: Conflict has a devastating impact on education - it disrupts schooling and destroys educational infrastructure. Yet education systems are usually expected to contribute significantly to rebuilding shattered societies. They have to do this in a society suffering from the after effects of conflict and the psychological impact felt by pupils, teachers and communities. In post conflict situations, political authority and civil administration are often weak, compromised, or inexperienced; civil society is in disorder and financial resources limited.
  • Youth peace-building responds to inter-communal conflict: Peace-building programmes for young people are being pioneered to transform social relationships in countries and regions suffering long-standing conflict such as Northern Ireland, Cyprus, the Middle East, the Balkans, India and Pakistan: young people go to a neutral country where they are free from the pressures of conflict and violence.

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