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Year: 2008
The Mountain Forum Bulletin focuses on the theme of climate change in mountains and adaptation to climate change
Year: 2007
This issue of id21 insights focuses on the quality of teachers:
  • More and better teachers needed - Achieving quality education for all: Eighteen million primary school teachers are needed over the next decade to meet Universal Primary Education (UPE) goals, says a recent report from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics
  • Effective professional development: Continuing — or in-service — professional development (CPD) for teachers is widely considered a critical condition for improved instructional quality and student learning.
  • Missing in action - Addressing teacher absenteeism: Getting teachers to come to work is a major barrier to improving education outcomes in some developing countries, especially in South Asia. Governments often spend 70 to 90 percent of their recurrent education budgets on teacher salaries, without the most basic of returns.
  • Changes in the primary teaching profession in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa: For many countries in sub-Saharan Africa achieving universal access to quality primary education has meant recruiting many more teachers at the same time as improving the quality of teaching.
  • Gender equality and HIV and AIDS in Uganda: HIV and AIDS widen existing inequalities of access to education for boys and girls. Research in Luweero district in central Uganda shows the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on primary school teachers and students in rural areas. Particular efforts are required to ensure that teachers can fulfil their potential to promote gender equality in schools.
  • Fighting for their lives - Political violence against teachers in Colombia: Awareness of the scale of human rights violations against Colombian trade unionists is growing. Of the 1,174 reported murders of trade unionists worldwide between 1999 and 2005, 860 were Colombian and half of these were teachers, according to the Colombian National Trade Union School.
  • Finding the pathway - Women teachers' aspirations in northern Pakistan: Women teachers face enormous cultural challenges in northern Pakistan. Research from the Aga Khan University explores women's experiences of trying to build teaching careers within this patriarchal society and looks at how they balance their multiple commitments.
Available also in French.


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Year: 2006
In this id21 insight, the focus is on how transport is improtant for development:
  • Transport, the missing link? A catalyst for achieving the MDGs: What do poor rural farmers do when the rainy season cuts off their access to markets? What do women in labour do when the nearest health clinic is 30 kilometres away and transport is virtually non-existent? How can girls attend school if the journey isn't safe? How do women provide for their families when the transport burden of domestic chores takes up potential income generating time?
  • Creating jobs: In rural areas where non-farm employment opportunities are rare, road maintenance can provide much needed work
  • Getting to school: Achieving universal primary education: Physical mobility and transport barriers that prevent rural children from attending primary school can be substantial but are often complex and hidden. The situation is particularly severe in sub-Saharan Africa where, with few exceptions, more than half the children in any age group fail to attend school regularly.
  • Balancing the load - Gender and mobility: Women, particularly in poor rural areas, often spend more time and effort on transport, have less access to public services and less control over resources. Women also have fewer opportunities than men to use different types of transport such as wheelbarrows, animal traction or motorcycles.
  • Transport for pregnant women in Ethiopia: Africa has the highest maternal mortality ratio, with 830 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to the World Health Organization.
  • Halting the march of HIV/AIDS in Africa: Across eastern and southern Africa, the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals, households, communities and society as a whole, is devastating. No sector has been left untouched, including health, education, agriculture, transport, small and big business, trade and civil society. What can the rural transport sector do to help lesson the impact of the disease?
  • A global network for rural transport: Conventional approaches to MDG 8 - a global partnership for development - tend to focus on trade, aid and private sector issues. The International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) is developing another type of partnership, a global network of individuals and organisations to improve access and mobility for poor people in rural areas.
  • Conflicting agendas in Colombia: In Colombia's tropical jungle, indigenous and African descendant communities live isolated from the rest of the country. Large-scale transport development, responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and widespread deforestation, has a poor environmental record in one of only two humid tropical jungles left in the world.
Available also in French and in Spanish

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Year: 2005
In this issue of id21 insights, articles focus on the role of community radio:
  • Voices for change - Tuning in to community radio: The impact of new information and communication technologies on development is a subject of extensive international debate, particularly at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society
  • Step by step: towards legislation and practice in India: More than a decade after the Indian Supreme Court judged that 'airwaves are public property', national laws still prohibit genuine community radio broadcasting. Residential universities and educational institutions, however, can apply for broadcasting licenses. Although the government refers to these as community radio stations and they transmit beyond their campuses, they are in fact campus radio. While this indicates change at policy levels, the crucial question for India now is: how soon will community radio follow?
  • Legalising community radio in Mexico: The struggle for community radio's legal recognition in Mexico began in 2002, when several unlicensed community radio stations came under threat. The book Con Permiso describes and analyses the process through which community radio in Mexico obtained legal recognition, despite opposition from the owners of the most powerful commercial media in the country, Televisa and TV Azteca.
  • Colombian radio thrives in armed conflict: Tiny radio stations and other media initiatives managed by citizens’ groups are operating successfully in regions where leftist guerrilla organisations, right-wing paramilitary groups, drug traffickers and the Colombian army have a strong presence. The University of Oklahoma in the USA, Magdalena Medio Community Radio Stations Association (AREDMAG), Universidad Javeriana and Universidad del Norte in Colombia have examined citizens’ media in areas of armed conflict. Initiatives are achieving significant results and transforming communities living in difficult circumstances.
  • Sustainability is not just about money: Sustainability is too often associated solely with funding. Community media projects are considered 'sustainable' - and therefore 'successful' - when they manage to finance their operations. Little attention has been given to other crucial aspects of sustainability: institutional and social. Money is important, but the main pillar that sustains community media is its community's participation.
  • Community Multimedia Centres provide development services: Community Multimedia Centres (CMCs) combine community radio and telecentre services to form a comprehensive information and communication platform serving local development needs. Launched in 2001 by UNESCO, today there are over 50 centres in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean and scale-up projects are underway in Mali, Mozambique and Senegal.
  • New voices in Indonesia - Challenges and opportunities: The Indonesian government acknowledged the existence of community radio stations with the ratification of the Broadcasting Law in 2002. There are still constraints to their smooth functioning, however, in particular unclear regulation and low-skilled community radio activists. They also remain in an inferior position to commercial broadcasters, for whom community radio stations are potential competitors. Yet, community radio in Indonesia has helped improve democratic processes and promote local culture.
  • Radio assesses community change in Mozambique: An expanding network of community radios is strengthening civil society and supporting community development and social change in Mozambique. The increase from one community radio station in 1994 to nearly fifty in 2005 means that more than a third of the population now lives within reach of a station. Regular, sustainable, impact assessments are essential if these stations are to be effective.
  • Lessons for localising development: Do community radio stations cover development issues? Is there a real link between the participation and social mobilisation effects associated with community radio and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

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