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Year: 2007
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a leading agency in the development of the value chain approach and in making it more applicable to the small-farmer agriculture context
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Year: 2006
An IDRC-funded shared learning effort helps farmers deliver fresh water —and the prospect of a brighter future — to impoverished villages in China’s Guizhou province
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Year: 2006
This issue of id21 insight focuses on pro-poor tourism and how far it really helps the poor:
  • How pro-poor is tourism? New practices can reduce poverty: Pro-poor tourism should increase the benefits of the tourism industry for poor people
  • Can the private sector mainstream pro-poor tourism? Businesses run tourism, from micro-enterprises to multinational companies. How companies conduct their business influences how far poor people benefit from tourism.
  • Black Economic Empowerment - The South African approach: Inequality and unemployment still largely occurs along racial lines in South Africa, despite the end of apartheid. The government is addressing this by promoting Black Economic Empowerment throughout the economy.Pro-poor tourism is part of this.
  • Government support in Lao PDR - How effective is it? Foreign exchange from tourism (over US$ 146 million in 2005) significantly benefits the national economy in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This money stimulates local production and consumption in many sectors, including transport, agriculture and education, but does it benefit poor people?
  • Linkages and leakages - Local supply and imports: Tourism is a major global industry, but is it good for developing countries? Since long-haul tourism to developing countries started in the late 1960s, many commentators have persistently claimed that tourism scarcely benefits the hosts. One suggested problem is the high level of leakages out of the destination country.
  • Can all-inclusive tourism be pro-poor? A key aspect of pro-poor tourism is creating and - more importantly - maintaining employment opportunities for poor communities. All-inclusive tourism businesses and large hotels can provide jobs in developing countries. As such, they have a potentially important role in pro-poor tourism.
  • Community-based tourism - Failing to deliver? Community-based tourism was a popular intervention during the 'ecotourism' boom of the 1990s. It is now being suggested as a form of pro-poor tourism. However, few projects have generated sufficient benefits to either provide incentives for conservation - the objective of ecotourism - or contribute to local poverty reduction.

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Year: 2006
This issue of id21 insights focuses on remittances and how they can reduce poverty:
  • Sending money home: Can remittances reduce poverty?  At least US$232 billion will be sent back home globally by around 200 million migrants to their families in 2005, three times official development aid (US$78
  • Do remittances reduce poverty?  International remittances to developing countries will total around US$167 billion in 2005, more than twice official aid flows. Despite the ever-increasing size of international remittances, little attention has been paid to their effect on poverty and income distribution in developing countries and many policy questions remain unanswered.
  • Improving health and education: Remittances encourage investment in education and health, especially for children. New research suggests they can help families break the cycle of poverty and improve living conditions for future generations.
  • Boosting economic growth: Remittances by international migrants to their countries of origin constitute the largest source of external finance for developing economies after foreign direct investment (FDI). Estimated official remittances are US$167 billion for developing countries in 2005, double total development aid.
  • New regulations restrict Somali remittances: Approximately one million Somalis send US$1 billion back home every year, a crucial source of income for most of the Somali population. New regulations, however, as part of the 'war on terror', are restricting the flow of remittances into the country.
  • A better quality of life?  Remittances have an important role to play in the economic development of a country. Yet their impact is primarily seen at the regional and local level as a source of income to improve the wellbeing of thousands of households in migrant-sending countries.
  • Sending money home to Asia: Half the world's international migrants and most international labour migrants come from Asia. It is the main destination region for remittance flows from north to south, as well as within Asia from countries such as South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Thailand. The scale of remittances in Asia is unknown, however, and few policies exist to maximise their developmental impact.
  • Gender matters: Are remittance flows gender-neutral? Does it matter if the people involved in these transactions are male or female? Do remittances reshape gender relations?

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Year: 2006
This newsletter presents the overall conclusions from the environmental service incentive (ESIs) component of the Roles of Agriculture Project Phase II
Year: 2005
This issue of id21 insights focuses on children and poverty:
  • Make childhood poverty history: About 600 million children worldwide are growing up in absolute poverty
  • Economic policy must recognise children: Macroeconomic policies have powerful effects on children. They shape public spending on basic services such as education and health and influence how households respond to changing economic conditions, often in ways that are not good for children. Yet policy making on the whole does not recognise child well-being as an objective or an outcome. Pro-child interventions relating to economic growth, trade and macroeconomic policy are critical to overcoming poverty.
  • Educating women = healthier children? What is the best way to improve the health of a nation's children? Community healthcare facilities, water supplies and sewerage systems are traditional targets for public investment. Peru's experience suggests that improving women's education is just as important.
  • Children's issues ignored in Ethiopia's PRSP process: Donors, governments and other groups acknowledge that addressing childhood poverty and labour is an important part of broader poverty reduction efforts. Yet, policies with a more comprehensive approach to tackling the multi-dimensionality of child poverty are rarely included in national poverty strategies.
  • Cash transfers can reduce childhood poverty: Forty percent of children in developing countries struggle to survive on less than one US dollar a day, according to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Childhood poverty often leads to long term vulnerability. It is associated with lower educational attainment and schooling which affects future earning potential and well-being. Cash transfers can protect people's well-being as well enable them to invest in their future.
  • Monitoring budgets for child rights: The Bill of Rights in South Africa's constitution gives special consideration to child rights such as basic nutrition and education, health care and social services. Is it possible to ensure that these rights are realised?
  • Dynamics of child poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic: The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the smallest and least developed of the newly created independent states of the former Soviet Union. It ranks 110 out of the 177 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI). In the late 1990s, 88 percent of the population were living on less than US$ 4 per day. Children make up nearly two-fifths of its population but child poverty has received little attention.
  • Does child labour always undermine education? Children are often forced to work due to chronic poverty. Globally, work is the main occupation of almost 20 percent of all children aged under 15. This is considered a major obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education by 2015.
  • ‘High achievers’ prioritise social policy: Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Kerala (India) have succeeded in improving child welfare to a much higher level than might be expected given their national wealth. They are 'high-achievers' in social policy: in 50 years they have made advances in health and education that took 200 years in the industrialised world.

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Year: 2005
In this issue of id21, the focus is on people living in protected areas:
  • People and protected areas: New agendas for conservation: For many threatened plants and animals, protected areas are a vital refuge in the face of declining natural habitats
  • Making waves: Protecting marine and coastal areas involves many similar issues to terrestrial protected areas, including balancing conservation and development needs and managing tradeoffs between multiple users. However, they also present unique challenges: they often cross international boundaries and the high mobility or migration of many marine species makes protection beyond boundaries difficult.
  • Is forced displacement acceptable in conservation projects? Over ten million people have been displaced from protected areas by conservation projects. Forced displacement in developing countries is a major obstacle to reducing poverty. It should no longer be considered a mainstream strategy for conservation and only applied in extreme cases following international standards.
  • Learning to learn: Societies place a high value on addressing two of the world's most pressing problems - alleviating poverty and protecting the world's biological diversity. A lot of money has been spent on these two objectives, international treaties have been signed and countless organisations have devoted time to implementing funds in projects.
  • Protecting nature, culture and people: Indigenous peoples' traditional ownership and use of land and resources has often been eroded by protected areas. Their consent has rarely been sought for establishing protected areas on their lands, nor have they received adequate compensation. But are conservation organisations and government protected area agencies beginning to recognise the important role these peoples can play?
  • Agriculture vs protected areas: Agriculturalists strive to increase crop production to provide poor communities with incomes and a secure food supply whilst environmentalists want to expand protected areas and reduce the intensity of farming.
  • Tourism in Nepal: Tourism in the Greater Himalaya supports the local economy with foreign exchange and by creating opportunities for local employment. Mass and unregulated tourism, however, can cause environmental damage, particularly in ecologically fragile areas. Is ecotourism - responsible travel that aims to conserve the environment and improve local people's welfare - an effective compromise?
  • Governance of protected areas: The 2003 World Parks Congress and 2004 Programme of Work on Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity brought unprecedented attention to the concept of governance of protected areas, with crucial implications for conservation worldwide.

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Year: 2002
The tourism industry has established itself as one of the world?s major industries, one that offers significant opportunities for employment creation, local economic development and integration in to the international market
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Year: 2002
This issue of ETFRN News explores innovative financing mechanisms for conservation and sustainable forest management, whether in conceptual stage, under development, or operational
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