Mountain value chains are influenced by a set of mountain specificities which provide comparative advantages, but also present challenges that can prevent mountain people from benefiting adequately from their resources. The generic value chain framework overlooks important imperatives of mountains, which greatly shape the ways in which interventions function. To be successful, this approach needs to be adapted to the mountain specific context. This publication presents an analytical and strategic framework for value chain development in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan mountain areas, prepared on the basis of experience and field learning from close to 20 different product and service-based value chains that were piloted and reviewed. The specific value chain strategies for mountains are elaborated and prioritised according to the prevailing mountain specificities. The publication provides an orientation to, and decision-making aid for, the design and implementation of value chain development projects in mountain and hill areas. The framework is intended to support the informed decision making of mountain communities and regional stakeholders from the public, private, and civil sectors in developing value chain strategies that leverage or neutralise the imperatives of the mountain context.