Answers to what constitutes effective governance become particularly complex in rapidly changing contexts such as those of South Asia and, in particular, the Hindu Kush Himalaya – the focus of this study. In such contexts, governance arrangements have to be instituted with particular care and with an eye to long-term processes so as to reduce the likelihood of perverse outcomes. The empirical focus of this study is on the governance processes that characterize the use of key natural resources such as river waters, transboundary protected areas, irrigation, forest resources, and rangelands. An examination of resource governance highlights governance actors and mechanisms from across the social and political spectrums, their interests, and decision processes. It also brings to the forefront the importance of coordination across scales levels, and the interests and actions of multiple stakeholders that invariably shape governance outcomes.