The need for a regional TOT was recognized over the course of multiple interactions between ICIMOD and HILIFE partners in all three countries, where linkages between ecosystems services and livelihood opportunities were discussed and potential livelihood options were mapped. Recommendations were validated through a Landscape Journey exercise in respective pilot sites in China, India and Myanmar. In all three sites, options for promoting innovative livelihoods through eco-tourism and other NTFPs based value chain development efforts were highlighted, and the need for capacity strengthening mentioned. The idea was to optimize the use of the landscape’s rich natural and socio-cultural assets, rich agrobiodiversity (indigenous plant, livestock, bees) and non-timber natural resources (bamboos, medicinal herbs etc.). The need for practical skills related to operating eco-tourism and other high-value enterprises using value chain approaches, and adapting relevant land water management technologies among institutions and communities in the pilot areas was recognized. This set the stage for the Regional Training of Trainers (TOT) on innovative livelihoods.