The Hindu Kush Karakoram Pamir Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative (HKPLCDI) is a regional transboundary initiative to enhance cooperation between Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, and Tajikistan for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in the western Hindu Kush Himalayas. The landscape lies at the convergence of several important biogeographical regions and possesses a unique and rich assemblage of floral and faunal diversity. The landscape is a part of or adjacent to important biodiversity hotspots of global importance and ecoregions. The region is also the source or upstream area of many important rivers, including the Amu Darya, Tarim River, and Indus River, and therefore has great conservation value. It is a key link in the ancient Silk Road, and an important corridor through which many influential ethnic groups migrated across Eurasia. This has resulted in extremely diverse and brilliant cultures and regional history.