The present paper discusses the development of a participatory approach to promote medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) cultivation as a tool for biodiversity conservation and livelihood enhancement in Champawat district of Uttarakhand state in India. People perception analysis revealed that farmers were dependent solely on the wild collection of MAPs before the initiation of the National Agriculture Innovation Project. However, they later engaged in cultivation practices. During the course of study, the propagation protocols of 11 selected MAPs of that area were developed and a cost-benefit analysis was performed. A series of meetings and exposure visits were organized and a memorandum of understanding was simultaneously signed between farmers and traders for promoting a buy-back system of MAPs. One hundred thirty-two farmers adopted MAP cultivation in 14 hectares of land. This approach provides opportunities for farmers to build skills, knowledge, and self confidence, and conserve MAP diversity in their natural habitat.