The Kangchenjunga Landscape (KL), a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries have came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development since 2012. To start strategic conservation intervention, the status of knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of biodiversity research in the KL, and present the research trend over time and subjects interests. Meanwhile, we also identified key research and knowledge gaps and future priorities. For this, we analyzed 500 peer reviewed journal articles (until 2014) related to the biodiversity that are retrieved from the web platform â€˜Google Scholarâ€™ and other peer reviewed journals. The review showed that the landscape received attention from scientific community as early as 1840s and grew progressively after 1980s. Research on fauna (especially mammals) and flora (especially angiosperms) are utmost but with major gaps on systematic research on their ecology, whereas invertebrates other than butterflies appear to be neglected. There is a need of systematic research with long-term monitoring that would allow understand the changes occurring within the landscape.