Water is one of our most precious natural resources. A growing human population, and the expansion of economic activities that comes with it, will intensify the pressure on water resources. Therefore, in Egypt water management become particularly important as it located in the Arid/Semi-Arid belt. Accordingly, water in Egypt is a limiting factor for – economic and social development activities and development plans. The integrated water resources management is the approach that strengthens and supports the sustainable management and development of water resources in addition to other resources in order to achieve the most appropriate economic and social benefits. Also to achieve social justice in distribution without any disturbance in the environment and allow the participation of interested in water in making process. From that way, a deep conviction about activating and vital economic and social role of women in facing the challenges of development at all levels. Therefore women should contribute to achieve a comprehensive reform for the communities in development areas as a partner of the inherent social and economic system and represents half of the manpower affecting its development, Therefore, the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation has given considerable interest for women's affairs and included the importance of their role in water management principally in Ministry of Water Resources Recent Strategies. This study aims at evaluating the economic and social roles of women in water resources development projects in Egypt. In addition, the study is extended to crises-cross the impact of women presence in water resources projects on the efficiency and effectiveness of one of these projects. Thus, in the current study New Assiut Barrage Project has targeted the economic and social role of women in some villages of Assiut Governorate. A sample was selected to identify the obstacles faced women role in developing the economic and social effects of new Barrage and put down or propose same methodology to activate this role. On the other hand, investigating of the social role of women was concerned with the surveying of the most important facilities women have in the study area in addition to the potentials in the research sample that contributes to the establishment of women's roles in social education and awareness for water projects. Finally, the study ended up that women have a significant role in raising the efficiency and effectiveness of New Assiut Barrage. The findings of the study can be summarized as the success of water projects is depending partially on the women role through changing the negative social traditions achieving effective participation of individuals, raising of women community self-confidence, improve women different roles, stimulating their spirit of competition, participation and volunteering.