The Hindu Kush Himalayan region has experienced great changes in the past five years, with rapid population growth, economic development, urbanization, and high rates of out-migration and consequent feminization of rural activities. In particular, the mountains have gained greater attention as hotspots of climate change. These changes pose challenges to traditional livelihood strategies and coping mechanisms. At the same time, the mountains have been increasingly recognized for the ecosystem services they provide. To respond better to the changing needs, ICIMOD revisited its Strategic Framework in 2012.