000027720 001__ 27720
000027720 041__ $$aEnglish
000027720 100__ $$aMcconnell, J. R.
000027720 245__ $$a20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing
000027720 260__ $$c2007
000027720 300__ $$a1381-1384
000027720 520__ $$aBlack carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion alters chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere and snow albedo, yet little is known about its emission or deposition histories. Measurements of BC, vanillic acid, and non–sea-salt sulfur in ice cores indicate that sources and concentrations of BC in Greenland precipitation varied greatly since 1788 as a result of boreal forest fires and industrial activities. Beginning about 1850, industrial emissions resulted in a sevenfold increase in ice-core BC concentrations, with most change occurring in winter. BC concentrations after about 1951 were lower but increasing. At its maximum from 1906 to 1910, estimated surface climate forcing in early summer from BC in Arctic snow was about 3 watts per square meter, which is eight times the typical preindustrial forcing value.
000027720 700__ $$aEdwards, R.
000027720 700__ $$aKok, G. L.
000027720 700__ $$aFlanner, M. G.
000027720 700__ $$aZender, C. S.
000027720 700__ $$aSaltzman, E. S.
000027720 700__ $$aBanta, J. R.
000027720 700__ $$aPasteris, D. R.
000027720 700__ $$aCarter, M. M.
000027720 700__ $$aKahl, J. D. W.
000027720 773__ $$pScience
000027720 773__ $$v317 (5843)
000027720 773__ $$a10.1126/science.1144856
000027720 8564_ $$uhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5843/1381.abstract
000027720 980__ $$aArticle