000020516 001__ 20516
000020516 041__ $$aEnglish
000020516 100__ $$aSalerno, F.
000020516 245__ $$aExperience With a Hard and Soft Participatory Modeling Framework for Social-ecological System Management in Mount Everest (Nepal) and K2 (Pakistan) Protected Areas
000020516 260__ $$c2010
000020516 300__ $$a80-93
000020516 507__ $$aBirendra Bajracharya, ICIMOD Staff , peerreviewed
000020516 520__ $$aHigh mountains have sensitive social-ecological systems (SESs) characterized by fragility, complexity, and marginality. The local economies of these environments mainly rely on primary production, tourism, and leisure activities; thus human–ecosystem interactions are intricately linked. Many authors stress that this strict relationship must be assisted with a participatory approach involving interested stakeholders in the conceptualization, specification, and synthesis of knowledge and experience into useable information for the express purpose of addressing a problem complex. This paper presents experience garnered with a participatory modeling framework combining hard and soft methodology in 2 case studies: the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone (Nepal) and the Central Karakoram National Park (Pakistan). The modeling framework was developed based on local stakeholders' demands and needs; it consists of 5 modules, briefly presented here along with their conceptual background. In developing the framework, particular emphasis was given to considering the needs of decision-makers at the local level, rather than simply providing technical solutions to abstract problems. From the development of this modeling process, a need emerged to structure a management-oriented research module in order to generate management knowledge that is both stakeholder-relevant and evidence-based. The application of the framework in the 2 cases studies showed that the modeling can trigger valuable discussion among stakeholders as well as guidance for management-oriented research and feedback loops ensuring validation of knowledge. In addition, the resulting scenarios can help decision-makers in defining pathways for sustainable development in mountain areas, where people's livelihoods are closely dependent on ecosystems. The framework was developed in such a way that it can be replicated in other mountain areas with similar challenges.
000020516 650__ $$aGeoinformation and RS
000020516 653__ $$aSystem dynamics
000020516 653__ $$amanagement-oriented research
000020516 653__ $$aquantitative modeling
000020516 653__ $$asocial-ecological systems
000020516 653__ $$aqualitative modeling
000020516 653__ $$aadaptive management
000020516 653__ $$amodeling scenarios
000020516 700__ $$aCuccillato, E.
000020516 700__ $$aCaroli, P.
000020516 700__ $$aBajracharya, B.
000020516 700__ $$aManfredi, E. C.
000020516 700__ $$aViviano, G.
000020516 700__ $$aThakuri, S.
000020516 700__ $$aFlury, B.
000020516 700__ $$aBasani, M.
000020516 700__ $$aGiannino, F.
000020516 700__ $$aPanzeri, D.
000020516 773__ $$pMountain Research and Development
000020516 773__ $$v30 (2)
000020516 773__ $$a10.1659/mrd-journal-d-10-00014.1
000020516 8564_ $$uhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00014.1
000020516 980__ $$aARTICLE