000014704 001__ 14704
000014704 037__ $$a6360
000014704 041__ $$aEnglish
000014704 100__ $$aWilson, P.
000014704 245__ $$aGiving developing countries the best shot: An overview of vaccine access and R&D
000014704 260__ $$c2010
000014704 260__ $$bJoint Agency Paper: Oxfam International and Médecins Sans Frontières: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/policy/health/downloads/giving_developing_countries_best_shot_vaccines_0510.pdf
000014704 490__ $$aReport
000014704 507__ $$aMFOLL
000014704 520__ $$aVaccines have contributed to some of the greatest public health  successes of the past century, averting 2.5 million child deaths every  year and millions more bouts of illness and disability. Yet even as the  demand for existing, new and planned vaccines grows in developing  countries, financing for immunization in poor countries has reached a  crisis point, and major problems in the vaccines market mean that access  to existing vaccines and development of new vaccines will be impeded  and delayed.
This joint report of Oxfam International and Medecins Sans  Frontieres provides critical insights on the existing challenges to  ensure children across the developing world get timely, affordable and  appropriate access to vaccines, while ensuring that the unmet needs of  poor children are met by the public and private sector in the coming  years.
<strong>Key conclusions</strong>
<ul class='square_dot_ul' class="square_dot_ul">
<li>A dramatic funding shortfall is endangering global  commitments to introduce new vaccines and plans to provide existing  vaccines to developing countries. Competitive markets for existing  vaccines, such as pentavalent, matched by increased donor contributions,  are critical pre-requisites to meet existing demand in developing  countries.</li>
<li>Any efforts to increase access and affordability in  developing countries must also keep middle-income countries in mind.  A  more comprehensive approach could include new pooled procurement  mechanisms (modelled on PAHO&rsquo;s revolving fund), access to GAVI prices  for some countries that might not qualify for subsidies, regional  exports by government owned producers, and forms of tiered pricing  acceptable to middle-income countries.</li>
<li>Shortening the time it takes for competitive products to  reach the market is a key strategy to make vaccines more affordable for  countries and donors.  Strategies that could help to reduce barriers to  entry include: building the capacity of developing countries to produce  vaccines, facilitating technology transfer, preventing or removing  patent barriers, including open licensing policies on the part of  universities and government research bodies and the use of TRIPS  flexibilities, and ensuring procurement policies that support  competition and, at a minimum, do not inadvertently reduce the dominance  of a handful of established multinational suppliers.</li>
<li>The current, market-based R&amp;D system has failed to  develop vaccines for diseases such as TB and malaria that affect large  numbers of people as well as vaccines for smaller markets such as  dengue. In addition to new vaccines, there is also a need for improved,  cheaper and more suitable versions of existing vaccines.</li>
<li>New mechanisms, including potentially prizes, are needed  to support technology transfer and fund vaccine development. </li>
000014704 653__ $$achildren
000014704 653__ $$ahealth
000014704 653__ $$ahealth care
000014704 653__ $$apoverty
000014704 650__ $$aKnowledge management
000014704 650__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000014704 650__ $$aPoverty and food security
000014704 691__ $$aKnowledge management
000014704 691__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000014704 691__ $$aPoverty and food security
000014704 773__ $$p
000014704 8564_ $$uhttp://lib.icimod.org/record/14704/files/6360.pdf
000014704 980__ $$aREPORT