Propagation, linkage, and interaction of caldera ring-faults: Comparison between analogue experiments and caldera collapse at Miyakejima, Japan, in 2000 (2009)

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The formation of ring faults yields important implications for understanding the structural and dynamic evolution of collapse calderas and potentially associated ash-flow eruptions. Caldera collapse occurred in 2000 at Miyakejima Island (Japan) in response to a lateral intrusion. Based on geophysical data it is inferred that a set of caldera ring faults was propagating upward. To understand the kinematics of ring-fault propagation, linkage, and interaction, the authors describe new laboratory sand-box experiments that were analyzed through Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and post-processed using 2D strain analysis. The results help them gain a better understanding of the processes occurring during caldera subsidence at Miyakejima. They show that magma chamber evacuation induces strain localization at the lateral chamber margin in the form of a set of reverse faults that sequentially develops and propagates upwards. Then a set of normal faults initiates from tension fractures at the surface, propagating downwards to link with the reverse faults at depth. With increasing amounts of subsidence, interaction between the reverse- and normal-fault segments results in a deactivation of the reverse faults, while displacement becomes focused on the outer normal faults. Modeling results show that the area of faulting and collapse migrates successively outward, as peak displacement transfers from the inner ring faults to later developed outer ring faults. The final structural architecture of the faults bounding the subsiding piston-like block is hence a consequence of the amount of subsidence, in agreement with other caldera structures observed in nature. The experimental simulations provide an analogy to the observations and seismic records of caldera collapse at Miyakejima volcano, but are also applicable to caldera collapse in general.
Year: 2009
Language: English
In: Bulletin of Volcanology, October 2009:,



 Record created 2011-12-21, last modified 2013-01-17